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Kinds of Evidence

Kinds of Evidence

TEKS Objective

Analyze and interpret information to construct reasonable explanations from direct observable and indirect inferred evidence.

Essential Understanding

The student uses scientific methods during laboratory and outdoor investigations.

Science Background

Data, Analysis and Interpretation: Visionlearning (website) - Detailed information on data collection, analysis, interpretation and dissemination, along with references for further reading and additional learning modules on graphing, statistics and data accuracy.

Data, Analysis and Interpretation
by Anne E. Egger and Anthony Carpi, Visionlearning,

Signature Lesson

How Much Sugar is in Bubble Gum? TeachEngineering (website) - During this simple experiment—to determine whether sugarless gum loses as much mass after chewing as regular gum does—students learn the importance of experimental variables and controls; make observations; gather, analyze and interpret information, and design and conduct new experiments based on their own hypotheses. This lesson includes teacher background, assessments and extensions.

How Much Sugar is in Bubble Gum?

Supporting Lessons

Science Discrepant Events and Critical Thinking: (website) - Discrepant events enable students to witness scientific occurrences that have unexpected outcomes and contradict their prior knowledge. This phenomenon forces students to use critical thinking skills as they try to explain what happened.

Science Discrepant Events and Critical Thinking

Elaboration Lessons and Extensions

ZOOMsci: PBS Kids (website) - Choose from numerous featured investigations to engage your students in a wide range of science investigations requiring data interpretation and analysis, and the construction of explanations from observable and inferred evidence.

PBS Kids,

Assessment Ideas

As part of the Signature Lesson, How Much Sugar is in Bubble Gum, have students create posters that summarize their investigations and findings. Students should work in teams to create posters and present them to the class.

Rubrics for Assessment: University of Wisconsin, Stout (website) - Sample science rubrics for formative elementary assessments.

Rubrics for Assessment
University of Wisconsin, Stout,

Literature Connections

What’s the Plan? Designing Your Experiment. Hyde, Natalie (ISBN-13: 978-0778751540)

Solving Science Questions: A Book About the Scientific Process. Chappell, Rachel M. (ISBN-13: 978-1600445422)

Related Science TEKS

(5.1A) Science Safety
The student is expected to demonstrate safe practices and the use of safety equipment as described in the Texas Safety Standards during classroom and outdoor investigations.

(5.2A) Design/conduct Experiment with One Variable
The student is expected describe, plan, and implement simple experimental investigations testing one variable.

(5.2B) Ask Questions, Formulate a Hypothesis
The student is expected to ask well-defined questions, formulate testable hypotheses, and select and use appropriate equipment and technology.

(5.2C) Collect Data
The student is expected to collect information by detailed observations and accurate measuring.

(5.2E) Value of Repeated Experiments
The student is expected to demonstrate that repeated investigations may increase the reliability of results.

(5.2F) Communicate Conclusions
The student is expected to communicate valid conclusions in both written and verbal forms.

(5.2G) Graphs, Tables, Charts
The student is expected to construct appropriate simple graphs, tables, maps, and charts using technology, including computers, to organize, examine, and evaluate information.

(5.8D) Physical Characteristics of Sun, Earth and Moon
The student is expected to identify and compare the physical characteristics of the Sun, Earth, and Moon.

Related Math TEKS

5.12B The student is expected to use experimental results to make predictions.

5.13CThe student is expected to graph a given set of data using an appropriate graphical representation such as a picture or line graph.

5.14B   The student is expected to solve problems that incorporate understanding the problem, making a plan, carrying out the plan, and evaluating the solution for reasonableness.

Additional Resources

Magic Mixture, Apple Dunk: National Geographic Kids (website) - Use the Apple Dunk investigation to observe, interpret, and explain why apple slices treated in different ways turn brown at different rates.

Magic Mixture, Apple Dunk
National Geographic Kids,

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