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Kinds of Evidence

Kinds of Evidence

TEKS Objective

The student is expected to analyze and interpret patterns in data to construct reasonable explanations based on evidence from investigations.

Essential Understanding

The student uses scientific inquiry methods during laboratory and outdoor investigations.

Science Background

Analyze and Draw Conclusions: Discovery Education Science Fair Central (website) - An article that provides insight on how to aid students in conducting a science investigation. 

Analyze and Draw Conclusions
sDiscovery Education Science Fair Central,

Data, Statistics: Visionlearning (website) - Detailed information on statistical terminology, the role of statistics in describing variability—and reliability—in data, as well as the relationships between variables. Includes references for further reading and additional learning modules.

Data, Statistics

Signature Lesson

Inquiring Minds: National Institutes of Health (website) – Students use observations as evidence to deduce what is on the bottom of a “mystery” cube.

Inquiring Minds
National Institutes of Health,

The mystery cube template can be found at the following link (pages 1 and 2):

Mystery Cube Templates
National Institutes of Health,

Supporting Lessons

The Mystery Box: Perkins School for the Blind (website) - A box filled with different household objects is described by senses and by measurements.

The Mystery Box
Perkins School for the Blind,

Elaboration Lessons and Extensions

Making Observations and Generating Hypotheses and Expectations Using Our Senses: UC Berkley (website) - Students use their senses to make observations about a hidden object in a box.

Making Observations and Generating Hypotheses and Expectations Using Our Senses
UC Berkley,

Assessment Ideas

Gives each student a potato of their own to make observations and measurements.  Have them record their data into science notebook.  Make sure they include a detailed drawing along with the measurements.  Remove the potatoes and place them into one large bowl.  Ask student to use their observations to recover the exact potato they previously had.

Literature Connections

So Do You Have a Science Fair Project, Henderson, J. (ISBN-13: 978-0471202561)

What’s the Plan? Designing Your Experiment. Hyde, Natalie (ISBN-13: 978-0778751540)

Solving Science Questions: A Book About the Scientific Process. Chappell, Rachel M. (ISBN-13: 978-1600445422)

Related Science TEKS

(3.1A) Science Safety
The student is expected to demonstrate safe practices as described in the Texas Safety Standards during classroom and outdoor investigations, including observing a schoolyard habitat.

(3.1B) Recycling/Disposal of Science Materials
The student is expected to make informed choices in the use and conservation of natural resources by recycling or reusing materials such as paper, aluminum cans, and plastics.

(3.2A) Plan and Implement Descriptive Investigation
The student is expected to plan and implement descriptive investigations, including asking and answering questions, making inferences, and selecting and using equipment or technology needed, to solve a specific problem in the natural world.

(3.2B) Collect Data
The student is expected to collect data by observing and measuring using the metric system and recognize differences between observed and measured data.

(3.2C) Graphs, Tables, Charts
The student is expected to construct maps, graphic organizers, simple tables, charts, and bar graphs using tools and current technology to organize, examine, and evaluate measured data.

(3.2D) Analyze Evidence and Explain
The student is expected to analyze and interpret patterns in data to construct reasonable explanations based on evidence from investigations.

(3.2E) Value of Repeated Experiments
The student is expected to demonstrate that repeated investigations may increase the reliability of results.

(3.2F) Communicate Conclusions
The student is expected to communicate valid conclusions supported by data in writing, by drawing pictures, and through verbal discussion.

(3.4A) Tools for Collecting and Analyzing Information
The student is expected to collect, record, and analyze information using tools, including microscopes, cameras, computers, hand lenses, metric rulers, Celsius thermometers, wind vanes, rain gauges, pan balances, graduated cylinders, beakers, spring scales, hot plates, meter sticks, compasses, magnets, collecting nets, notebooks, sound recorders, and Sun, Earth, and Moon system models; timing devices, including clocks and stopwatches; and materials to support observation of habitats of organisms such as terrariums and aquariums.

(3.4B) Safety Equipment
The student is expected to use safety equipment as appropriate, including safety goggles and gloves.

Related Math TEKS

3.13A  The student is expected to collect, organize, record, and display data in pictographs and bar graphs where each picture or cell might represent more than one piece of data.

3.13B  The student is expected to interpret information from pictographs and bar graphs.

Additional Resources

Metric Madness: K8Science (PDF) - This lesson enables students to use tools and apply the skills of estimation and metric measurement in an engaging format. Students rotate through stations or centers in groups. This lesson may be adjusted depending on measurement objectives of the grade level.

Metric Madness

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