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Kinds of Evidence

Kinds of Evidence

TEKS Objective

The student is expected to analyze data and interpret patterns to construct reasonable explanations from data that can be observed and measured.

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4

Essential Understanding

The student uses scientific inquiry methods during laboratory and outdoor investigations.

Science Background

Analyze and Draw Conclusions: Discovery Education (website) - This article provides insight on helping students to conducting science investigations, and to look for/identify patterns in the data they collect.

Analyze and Draw Conclusions
Discovery Education , http://school.discoveryeducation.com

Data, Statistics: Visionlearning (website) - Detailed information on statistical terminology, the role of statistics in describing data variability and reliability, and the relationships between variables. Includes references for further reading and links to related learning modules.

Data, Statistics
Visionlearning, http://www.visionlearning.com

Signature Lesson

Inquiring Minds: National Institutes of Health (website) - Students use observation to collect and analyze data, and the use their data to construct reasonable explanations about what is on the bottom of a “mystery cube.”

Inquiring Minds
National Institutes of Health , http://science.education.nih.gov

Supporting Lessons

The Mystery Box: Perkins School for the Blind (website) - Students use their senses of touch and hearing to investigate, measure and describe different household “mystery objects.”

The Mystery Box
Perkins School for the Blind , http://www.perkins.org

Elaboration Lessons and Extensions

Making Observations and Generating Hypotheses and Expectations Using Our Senses: University of California Berkley (website) - Student use their senses to observe an object hidden in a box, and then use their evidence to generate hypotheses regarding the identity of the object.

Making Observations and Generating Hypotheses and Expectations Using Our Senses
University of California Berkley, http://gk12calbio.berkeley.edu

Assessment Ideas

Give each student a potato to observe and measure. Have students record measurement data into their science notebooks, along with detailed drawing of their potatoes. Then place all of the potatoes into one large bowl and have student use their data to recover their potatoes.

Literature Connections

So Do You Have a Science Fair Project? Henderson, J. (ISBN-13: 978-0471202561)

What’s the Plan? Designing Your Experiment. Hyde, Natalie (ISBN-13: 978-0778751540)

Solving Science Questions: A Book About the Scientific Process. Chappell, Rachel M. (ISBN-13: 978-1600445422)

Related Science TEKS

(4.2A) Plan and Implement Descriptive Investigation  
The student is expected to plan and implement descriptive investigations, including asking well-defined questions, making inferences, and selecting and using appropriate equipment or technology to answer his/her questions.

(4.2B) Collect Data
The student is expected to collect and record data by observing and measuring, using the metric system, and using descriptive words and numerals such as labeled drawings, writing, and concept maps.

(4.2C) Graphs, Tables, Charts 
The student is expected to construct simple tables, charts, bar graphs, and maps using tools and current technology to organize, examine, and evaluate data.

(4.2D) Analyze Evidence and Explain   
The student is expected to analyze data and interpret patterns to construct reasonable explanations from data that can be observed and measured.

(4.2E) Value of Repeated Experiments   
The student is expected to perform repeated investigations to increase the reliability of results.

(4.2F) Communicate Conclusions  
The student is expected to communicate valid, oral, and written results supported by data.

(4.3A) Analyze, Evaluate and Critique Explanations   
The student is expected to in all fields of science, analyze, evaluate, and critique scientific explanations by using empirical evidence, logical reasoning, and experimental and observational testing, including examining all sides of scientific evidence of those scientific explanations, so as to encourage critical thinking by the student.

(4.3C) Develop a Model  
The student is expected to represent the natural world using models such as rivers, stream tables, or fossils and identify their limitations, including accuracy and size

(4.4) Science Tools      
The student knows how to use a variety of tools, materials, equipment, and models to conduct science inquiry.

(4.4A) Tools for Collecting and Analyzing Information  
The student is expected to collect, record, and analyze information using tools, including calculators, microscopes, cameras, computers, hand lenses, metric rulers, Celsius thermometers, mirrors, spring scales, pan balances, triple beam balances, graduated cylinders, beakers, hot plates, meter sticks, compasses, magnets, collecting nets, and notebooks; timing devices, including clocks and stopwatches; and materials to support observation of habitats of organisms such as terrariums and aquariums.

(4.4B) Safety Equipment    
The student is expected to use safety equipment as appropriate, including safety goggles and gloves.

Related Math TEKS

4.11A  The student is expected to estimate and use measurement tools to determine length (including perimeter), area, capacity and weight/mass using standard units SI (metric) and customary.

4.11B   The student is expected to perform simple conversions between different units of length, between different units of capacity, and between different units of weight within the customary measurement system.

4.11C   The student is expected to use concrete models of standard cubic units to measure volume.

4.11D  The student is expected to estimate volume in cubic units.

4.11E   The student is expected to explain the difference between weight and mass.

4.12A  The student is expected to use a thermometer to measure temperature and changes in temperature.

4.12B   The student is expected to use tools such as a clock with gears or a stopwatch to solve problems involving elapsed time.

4.13A  The student is expected to use concrete objects or pictures to make generalizations about determining all possible combinations of a given set of data or of objects in a problem situation.

4.13B   The student is expected to interpret bar graphs.

4.14A  The student is expected to identify the mathematics in everyday situations.

4.14B   The student is expected to solve problems that incorporate understanding the problem, making a plan, carrying out the plan, and evaluating the solution for reasonableness.

4.14C   The student is expected to select or develop an appropriate problem-solving plan or strategy, including drawing a picture, looking for a pattern, systematic guessing and checking, acting it out, making a table, working a simpler problem, or working backwards to solve a problem.

Additional Resources

Metric Madness: BioEd Online (website) - Students rotate through stations or centers in groups, using different tools and applying the skills of estimation and metric measurement in an engaging format. This lesson can be adjusted to meet the measurement objectives of the grade level.

Metric Madness
BioEd Online, www.bioedonline.org

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